Food Science

A Guide to Food Additives - A

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A Guide to Food Additives - A

Name Other Names Purpose Source

Acacia gum

Wattles

Food emulsifier

Acacia plant

Acesulfame potassium

Ace-K, E950

Zero calorie sweetener

Synthetic

Acetic Acid

Acidity modulator

Found in vinegar

Acetylated distarch adipate

E1422

Bulking agent, stabilizer, thickener

Modified starch from maize, tapioca

Acetylated distarch phosphate

E1414

Bulking agent, stabilizer, thickener, fermented by microbiota

Modified starch from potato, maize, tapioca

Acetylated starch

E1420

Bulking agent, stabilizer, thickener, fermented by microbiota

Modified starch from potato, maize, tapioca

Adipic acid

E355, Hexanedioic acid

Tiny amounts used for gelling & tarty flavor, gives fizzy bubbles in drinks

Found in beets, sugar cane

Agar

Agar-agar, China grass, Kanten

Vegetable gelling agent used in jellies, puddings & custards

Found in red algae

Alginic acid

Pubchem

Algin, salts made are called "Alginates"

Alginates absorb water in dehydrated products, thickening agent for ice-cream, gelling agent for jellies, micro-encapsulation,

Found in brown seaweed

Alkanet

Pubchem

Alkanna tinctoria, the "dyer's alkanet", extract is Alkannin

Red dye soluble in oil and alcohol, coloring wine and vegetable oils

Herb native to Mediterranean

Allspice

Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, pimento

jerk seasoning, sausage, curry powder, stews, liqueur, desserts, chili and cakes

Berry of plant Pimenta dioica

Allura red

Pubchem

E129, Red azo dye, FD&C Red 40

Soluble in water, red coloring in cotton candy, soft drinks, cherry products, condiments, powder mixes & spices

Synthetic, organic, byproduct of petroleum

Aluminum Sulphate

Pubchem

E520

Purification of water, firming agent, precipitation of protein in brewing, used to strengthen vegetable structure

Very low concentration in beer & vegetables

Sodium Aluminum Phosphate

Pubchem

E541

Used as acids for baking powders, combines with baking soda to give carbon dioxide at baking temperatures, emulsifier in cheese making

Cheese, dairy substitute

Aluminium Potassium Sulfate

Pubchem

E522

Acidic ingredient in baking powder as leavening agent at high temperatures, pickling & preserving fruits & vegetables

Cheese, dairy substitute

Amchoor

Amchur, mango powder

Acidic and sour, used in vegetable dishes, soups, curries and tenderize meat for flavor and color

Cheese, dairy substitute

Ammonium Acetate

Pubchem

E264, Spirit of Mindererus

Preservative, acidity regulator, inhibits bacterial growth, sour & tangy flavor enhancer in condiments, pickling, snacks, cheese, wine, mead, eggs

Naturally produced by bacterial fermentation

Ammonium Adipate

Pubchem

E359, Diammonium adipate, Ammonium salt of adipic acid

Acidity regulator, Flavor enhancer

Adipic acid is found naturally in cells of living things

Ammonium bicarbonate

Pubchem

E503, Bicarbonate of ammonia, hartshor

Leavening agent in low moisture baked goods, steamed buns. Tasteless, decomposes into water and gas during baking.

Synthetically produced, initially by dry distillation of organic matter (leather, hair, antlers etc.)

Ammonium Chloride

Pubchem

E510, Sal ammoniac, Nushadir salt, Salmiak

Yeast & acidifier in breadmaking, gives cookies crisp texture, in liquor for flavoring. Increases crispness of snacks.

Inorganic, formed on burning coal dumps from condensation and in volcanic vents

Ammonium ferric citrate

Pubchem

E381, Ferric ammonium citrate, FerriSeltz

Acidity regulator, carbonated beverages, anti-caking agent, extremely water soluble

Synthetic, parent compound is citric acid, found in lemons and tarty fruits

Ammonium fumarate

Pubchem

E368, Diammonium fumarate

Acidity regulator

Ammonium hydroxide

Pubchem

E527, Ammonia water

Acidity regulator to lower acidity, antimicrobial agent

Ammonia is produced by decompositon of organic matter(plants, animals)

Ammonium Lactate

Pubchem

E328

Acidity regulator, flour treatment

Synthesized. Parent compound is lactic acid, found in fermented dairy such as yogurt & human body.

Ammonium Phospatides

E442

Emulsifier, flavor neutral, used in chocolate

Rapeseed(oil)

Ammonium polyphosphates

E545

Emulsifier

Consists of α-amylase, β-amylase, γ-amylase

Speed break down of starch to sugar during digestion, brewing beer and liquors, bread making

Animals, plants, microbes, human digestive system

Anise

Aniseed,

Not to be confused with star anise

Sweet and aromatic used in teas & ethnic foods across the globe

Anise plant

Annato

E160b

Used as a spice powder or paste in ethnic cuisines, yellow or orange color in cheese, ice-cream, bakery, desserts, drinks, fillings & fat-based foods.

Seed of fruit of achiote tree

Anthocyanins

Pubchem

E163

Multiple sources

Used as coloring agents, depending on pH, range from red, purple, blue and black

Found in various plant foods: acai, blackcurrant, orange, berries, black rice, black beans, purple corn, red cabbage, concord grapes

Arabinogalactan

Pubchem

Galactoarabinan, Larch gum

Emulsifier, flavoring agent, texturizer, thickener, stabilizer used in essential oils, non-nutritive sweeteners, mixes

Leek seed, carrot, radish, pear, maize, wheat, tomato

Argon

Pubchem

Type of noble gas

Displaces oxygen in airtight packaging to extend shelf life, protect wine from air in wine bottles

Third most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere besides Nitrogen & Oxygen, respectively

Asafoetida

Asafetida, badian, stinking gum

Digestive aid condiments, pickling, savory enhancer in ethnic cuisines, exists raw in resin form, pungency used to add odor to other spices

Dried resin extracted from Ferula herb

Ascorbic Acid

Pubchem

E300, Ascorbate, Vitamin C, L-ascorbic acid,

Water soluble anti-oxidant, preservative, stabilizer or thickener, nutrient supplement of Vitamin C

Higher amounts in several fruits and vegetables and smaller in animal sources

Ascorbyl palmitate

Pubchem

E304, Vitamin C ester

Fat soluble version of vitamin C and anti-oxidant

Synthesized, Vitamin C found in fruits and vegetables

Ascorbyl stearate

Pubchem

E305, Vitamin C ester

Fat soluble version of vitamin C and anti-oxidant used in tiny amounts

Synthesized, Vitamin C found in fruits and vegetables

Aspartame

Pubchem

E951

Non-nutritive sweetener, used to sweeten beverages, chewing gums and condiments, 200 times sweeter than sugar

Synthesized, rapidly breaks down to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol(some fruit juices have higher concentration) in body

Astaxanthin

Pubchem

E161j

Fat soluble, blood red coloring agent, added to animal feed to give farmed salmon and chicken yolk color, gives lobster & shrimp red color when cooked

Found naturally in freshwater microalgae, yeast fungus, produced synthetically

Azorubine

Pubchem

E124, Carmoisine, Acid Red 14

Red coloring agent, used in Europe, not used in USA, soluble in water, used in salami, canned fruits, mixes, soups

Synthetic

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