Food Science

A Guide to Food Additives - C

  • By Editor
  • 0 comments

A Guide to Food Additives - C

Name Other Names Purpose Source

Cadinene

Pubchem

A group of isomeric(similar formula, different chemical structure) hydrocarbons

Synthetic flavor

Synthesized, derived from Cade Juniper

Caffeine

Guaranine, methyltheobromine,

Stimulant, Cognitive & physical performance booster,

Extracted from coffee beans from coffee fruit

Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides

E364

Flavor enhancer, combination of guanylic(E626) & inosinic acid(E630), reduces use of added flavoring

Guanylic acid & inosinic acdis are produced from meat and fish

Calcium acetate

E263, Caclium ethanoate, Acetate of lime

Stabilizer, buffer & sequestrate(stabilizer) in candy

Soaking calcium carbonate(egg shells), limestone, lime in vinegar

Calcium alignate

E404

Water insoluble, gelatinous & creamy substance used as thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier, insoluble artificial seeds

Combining calcium chloride with sodium alignate, Alignate found in brown algae

Calcium ascorbate

E300, Vitamin C

Anti-oxidant, nutrient

Citrus fruits, small amounts in meats

Calcium aluminosilicate

Pubchem

E556

Used in small amounts as an anti-caking agent in salt and vanilla powder

Found as a mineral in anorthite

Calcium benzoate

Pubchem

E213, Benzoic acid, calcium salt

Used in soft drinks, concentrates, fruit juices, vinegar, bread and baked goods as a preservative and reduces microbial & yeast growth. Water hardness reducer.

White crystalline powder, Synthetic, benzoates find in several fruits & herbs

Calcium bisulfite

E227

Acidic preservative, Firming/Reducing agent

Synthetic

Calcium carbonate

Pubchem

E170, Calcite, Lime, Limestone Marble, chalk, pearl, oyester

Acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, stabilizer, color, firming agent and used in some milk alternatives to provide dietary calcium

Mining or quarrying, synthesized, main component of shells of marine organisms, snails & eggs.

Calcium chloride

Pubchem

E509, Calcium dichloride

Highly soluble in water used as a firming agent in canned vegetables, tofu, caviar substitute. Electrolyte drinks, flavoring pickles, slow freezing of caramel in chocolate bars, brewing beer & cheesemaking as a coagulant

Inorganic, synthesized or purification of brine

Calcium citrate

Pubchem

E333, Tricaclium dicitrate

Preservative & flavoring agent, calcium supplementation

Produced during the isolation of citric acid, naturally found in citrus fruits

Calcium diglutamate

Pubchem

E623, CDG, calcium gultamate

Soluble flavor enhancer, similar to monosodium glutamate(MSG) without sodium

Calcium salt of glutamic acid, natural amino acid, made by bacterial fermentation. Glutamates found in cheese, milk, tomatoes, sardines, soy

Calcium ferrocyanide

E538

Salt substitute, yellow crystals or crystalline powder, Food improvement agent

Synthetic

Calcium formate

E238, Calcium methanoate

Antimicrobial & anti-fungal food preservative used in sauces, gravies, dressings, drinks & baked goods

Calcium salt of formic acid, found in stinging nettles and many insects such as ants and bees

Calcium fumarate

E367

Calcium booster in foods, acidity regulator,

Calcium salt of fumaric acid, found in fumitory, bolete mushrooms, lichen & Iceland moss

Calcium gluconate

E578

Firming agent, sequestrant & nutrient supplement for calcium

Synthesized, calclium found naturally in dairy, vegetable, nuts and tofu

Calcium guanylate

Pubchem

E629

Flavor enhancer,

Calcium salt of guanylic acid, part of all cells in living organisms. Synthesized from yeast extract or sardines

Calcium hydrogen sulfite

E227, Calcium bisulfite

Green fluid, reducing agent & preservative used in beer production, increase firmness of canned vegetables due to calcium

Synthesized inorganic compound

Calcium hydroxide

E526, Slaked lime, caustic lime, slack lime, cal, pickling lime

Clarifiation of raw juice from sugarcane or sugar beets, process water for alcohol & soft drinks, picking, removing cellulose from maize, clearning brine of carbonates to make salt, fortifying Calcium supplement, digestive aid, substitute for baking soda

Synthesized when quicklime(calcium oxide) is mixed with wat

Calcium inosinate

E633

Flavor enhancer, reducing the need for salt and other flavors in a product

Derived from peppercorn fruit

Calcium lactate

Pubchem

E327

Firming agent, flavor enhancer, leavning agent, stabilizer, thickener, supplement. Added to sugar-free foods to prevent tooth decay, firming fresh fruits and spherification in molecular gastronomy

Synthesized

Calcium lactobionate

Pubchem

E399, Galactosylgluconic acid, Lactobionic acid

Stabilizer, antioxidant or gelling in desserts, acidifier in fermented milk, non-dairy products, flavor enhancer and enhancing production of

Synthesized from gluconic acid and galactose

Calcium malates

Pubchem

E352

Thickening & flavoring agent used in ice-cream, friend products and marmalades

Calcium salts of malic acid, found in fruits

Calcium oxide

Pubchem

E529, Quicklime, burnt lime

Acid regulator, removing impurities in sugar refining, stabiliser in baked goods, manufacturing of sausage casing

Synthesized, thermal decomposition of materials such as limestone or seashells

Calcium pantothenate

Pubchem

E930, Calcium dioxide

Water soluble essential nutrient used to fortify cereals, infant formulas, energy bars and dried foods

Found in shiitake mushrooms, liver, kidney, egg yolks, sunflower seeds

Calcium peroxide

Pubchem

E930, Calcium dioxide

Used as a flour bleaching and improving agent, rarely used

Synthetic

Calcium phosphates

Pubchem

E341, Calcium salts of phosphoric acid

Used in baking powder to improve bread texture, increases antioxidant activity, stabilizes canned vegetable texture, polishing material toothpaste, preventing clumps in powders

Synthesized, normal part of the human body

Calcium propionate

Pubchem

E282, Mycoban, calcium salt of propanoic acid

Preservative in food such as bread, baked goods, processed meat, whey, dairy, mold inhibitor and fungicide on fruits

Sytnehsized, produced by bacteria in large intestines

Calcium silicate

Pubchem

E552, Belite, Grammite, Silene, calcium orthosilicate, Calsil

White powder servers as an anticaking agent in table salt, antacid

Synthesized from chalk

Calcium sorbate

Pubchem

E203, Calcium salt of sorbic acid

Fatty acid salt, preservative against fungi & yeasts in dairy and rye bread

Banned in European Union

Synthesized, sorbic acid found in fruit of rowan plant

Calcium stearoyl lactylate

Pubchem

E482, CSL

Cream colored powder used as emulsifier & stabiliser in yeast leavened bakery goods, liquid & frozen eggs, vegetable oil toppings, dehydrated potatoes, beverage mixes, confectionery, cereals, spirits, minces & canned meats, chewing gum, quick cook rice

Synthetic

Calcium sulfate

Pubchem

E516, Plaster of paris, drierite, gypsum

White poorly soluble powder, Firming, leavening & sequestrant, Coagulant in tofu, permitted in cheese products, cereal flours, baked goods, frozen desserts, artificial sweeteners, condiments & candies

Naturally occuring gypsum & anhydrite, quarried or mined

Calcium sulfite

Pubchem

E226, Sulfurous acid, calcium salt of sulfite

White powder used as antioxidant used in preserving wine, cider, fruit juice, canned fruit and vegetables, bleaching agent in sugar production

Synthesized, sulfites occur in foods and the human body

Calcium tartrate

Pubchem

E354, calcium L-tartrate, calcium salt of tartaric acid

By product of wine production, fruit & fish preservative, acidity regulator, seaweed products

Tartaric acid found in grapes or other fruits

Camomile

Pubchem

Chamomile

Used in beer making due to bitterness

Daisy like plants of Asteraceae family

Candelilla wax

Pubchem

E902

Glazing agent substitute for carnauba & beeswax

Candelilla shrub found native to north Mexico & southwest USA

Candle nut

Pubchem

Candleberry, Indian walnut, varnish tree, kemiri, Aleurites moluccanus

Used in ethnic cuisines for sauces & condiments

Seeds contain saponin and phorbol, mildly toxic when raw

Candelilla shrub found native to north Mexico & southwest USA

Canola oil

Pubchem

Rapeseed oil

Vegetable oil used in all forms of cooking and industrial productions of food

Extracted from canola plant

Canthaxanthin

Pubchem

E161g

Coloring agent & fat soluble antioxidant added to trout, salmon and poultry feed.

Not approved in Australia and New Zealand

Pacific salmon, broiler meat & egg yolk

Caper

Pubchem

Flinders rose, Capparis spinosa

Seasoning or grarnish in mediterranean cuisine, pickled, used in tartar sauce, salads, meat dishes, pasta sauces and substitue for rennet in cheese making

Caper bush

Capsanthin

Pubchem

E160c(i)

Red food coloring

Red bell pepper, paprika

Capsorubin

Pubchem

E160c(ii)

Red food coloring

Red bell pepper, paprika

Carrageenan

Pubchem

E407, Carrageenins

Found as Kappa, Iota & Lambda types and used as thickening, gelling and stabilizing agent in dairy & meat products

Red edible seaweed

Caraway

Pubchem

Meridian fennel, Persian cumin

Spice used in breads, desserts, liquors, casserols, goulash, sauerkraut, caraway cake, scones. Flavor to cheeses and pastes.

Caraway plant

Carbamide

Pubchem

E927b, Urea

Used in the process of fermenting sugars into ethanol

Synthesized, produced in our body

Carbon dioxide

Pubchem

E290, Carbonic oxide, dry ice(solid)

Colorless gas used as a preservative, propellant and "popper" in hard candy, carbonated drinks. Dry ice used in winemaking for cooling grapes

Trace gas found in earth's atmosphere

Cardamom

Pubchem

Cardamon, cardamum

Aromatic spice used in ethnic cuisines, treats, sweet bread, savory dishes, teas, aromatic bitters, gin and spice mixes

Elettaria and Amomum plant family, found in Indian subcontinent & Indonesia

Carmines

Pubchem

E120, Natural red 4, cochineal, NR4

Deep red color additive in yogurt, candy and juice

Aluminum salt of carminic acid, isolated from insects Dactylopius coccus

Carmoisine

Pubchem

E124, Azorubine, Acid Red 14

Red coloring agent, soluble in water, used in salami, canned fruits, mixes and soups

Not used in USA

Synthetic

Carnauba wax

Pubchem

E903, Brazil wax, palm wax

Yellow flakes used as a glazing agent to add shine to sweets

Synthetic

Carob

Pubchem

Caroube, Locust bean pod, St. John's bread

Carob pods are used in cakes and cookies as chocolate substitute, locust bean gum extracted is used as thickening agent and stabilizer, gluten substitute, gives jelly texture

Carob pod extracted from carob tree

Carotenes

Pubchem

Carotin, "carrot", Alpha, Beta & Gamma carotene

Fat soluble coloring agents that give orange to yellow hue

Synthesized by plants and algae, found in palm oil, corn and dairy

Cassia

Pubchem

Chinese cassia, Chinese cinnamon

Used as a spice, bark used as flavoring agent for desserts, pastries, meats, curry and confectionery

Not recommended at higher doses in humans

Chinese cassia tree

Celery salt

Pubchem

Salt of celery

Seasoning, making cocktails and hot dogs

Mixture of ground celery seeds and salt

Chervil

Pubchem

French parsley, garden chervil, leaves of joy

Herb used in seasoning poultry, seafood, vegetables, soups and sauces, especially French cooking

Plant of same name

Chicory

Pubchem

Common chicory, blue daisy, blue dandelion, blue sailors, bunk, coffeeeweed, cornflower, wild endive

Root used as coffee substitute, flavoring stouts & ales, leaves used in salads, extraction of inulin(dietary fiber & sweetener)

Catalogna chicory, Radicchio, sugarloaf, Belgian endive

Chili pepper

Pubchem

Chile, chilli

Dried and crushed to make chili powder, seasoning, preserved or pickled, used to make pastes, several ethnic dishes and condiments. Leaves in soups kimchi and preservation

Fruit of genus Capsicum of nightshade family

Chili powder

Pubchem

Powdered chili

Powdered forms of chili used alone as seasoning or to create blends with other spices and salts

Powdered fruit of genus Capsicum of nightshade family

Chives

Pubchem

Allium schoenoprasum

Flavoring herb used in European cuisine, coups, fish, sandwiches and pancakes

Plant of the same name

Chlorine dioxide

Pubchem

E926, Chlorine(IV) oxide

Yellow green gas, bread enhancer and leavening agent, bleaching agent for flour, rarely used

Synthetic

Chlorophyllin

Pubchem

E141, Copper phaeophytin, copper complex of chlorophyll

Green food coloring agent, E141(i) is soluble in water, E141(ii) is soluble in oil

Found in all plants and algae, extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa

Chocolate Brown HT

Pubchem

E155, Brown HT, Food Brown 3

Brown food dye substitute for cocoa and caramel, used in cakes, milk, cheese, yogurts, jams, fruit products, and meat

Approved in the European Union. Banned in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA

Synthetic

Cicely

Pubchem

Sweet cicely, myrh, myrrhis odorata, sweet chervil

Leaves used as herb, eaten raw or cooked, aroma similar to anise. Roots & seeds are edible.

Myrrhis odorata plant

Cinnamon

Pubchem

Canel, canella, cassia

Used as a spice, condiment and flavoring agent in chocolate, savory dishes, cereals, bread dishes, toasts, fruits and various ethnic soups, drinks, alcohol flavorant and sweets

Bark of genus cinnamomum

Citranaxanthin

Pubchem

E161i

Deep violet crystals added to animal feed to add yellow color to chicken fat and egg yolks

Synthesized

Citric acid

Pubchem

E330, sour salt

Flavoring and preserving agent in drinks and candies, emulsifying agent in ice-cream, in caramel to prevent crystallization, substitute for lemon juice, alternative to vinegar

Synthesized, found in vegetables and citrus fruits

Cloves

Pubchem

E330, sour salt

Used in Asian, African, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines to flavor meats, curries, marinades and fruits. Aroma used in hot beverages and teas and alongside other spices

Flower buds of a tree Syzygium aromaticum

Cochineal

Pubchem

E120, Carmine, Natural red 4, NR4

Deep red color additive in yogurt, candy and juice

Aluminum salt of carminic acid, isolated from insects Dactylopius coccus

Coconut Oil

Pubchem

Copra oil

Used in baked goods, pastries, saute, popping popcorn, non-dairy creamers and snack food

Derived from coconut palm tree

Sage

Pubchem

Garden sage, common sage, culinary sage

Herb used for savory flavor used in European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines

Derived from the salvia officinalis plant

Coriander

Pubchem

Chinese parsley, cilantro

Edible plant, leaves used fresh in ethnic cuisines such as salsa, guacamole, garnish, soups, meat dishes.

Seeds are dried and used as citrus spice, pickling, sausages, alternative to caraway, spice powders, brewing beer

Root used in curries and soups with more intense flavor

Coriandrum sativum herb

Corn oil

Pubchem

Maize oil

High smoke point oil used for frying, cooking and key ingredient in margarine

Expeller-pressed from corn

Corn syrup

Pubchem

Glucose syrup

Thickener, sweetener and maintaining freshness in foods, pancake syrup(substitute for maple syrup), production of high fructose corn syrup

Food syrup made from starch of corn

Cottonseed oil

Pubchem

Industrial oil used in salads, mayonnaise, dressings, potato chips, frying, snacks, shortenings and condiments

Oil extracted from seeds of cotton plant

Crocetin

Pubchem

Water soluble carotenoid that serves as coloring agent

Apocarotenoid found in jasmine fruit, saffron and crocus flower

Crocin

Pubchem

Water soluble carotenoid that serves as coloring agent

Carotenoid found in crocus, gardenia and saffron

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose

Pubchem

E466, E469(hydrolyzed), Cellulose gum, CMC

Thickener and stabilizer used to make ice creams without churning or low temperatures, reduced fat products, baked goods, emulsifier in chewing gum, peanut butter & margarines

Derivative of cellulose, organic compound found in plant cells

Cryptoxanthin

Pubchem

E161c

Red crystalline carotenoid converted to Vitamin A in body, antioxidant, coloring agent.

Not approved for use in European Union & United States

Isolated from orange rind, egg yolk, butter, apples, blood serum of bovine and papaya

Cumin

Pubchem

Aromatic and flavorful spice used in many cuisines, cheeses, chili powders, spice blends, stews, soups, gravies, pickles and pastry

Cuminum cyminum plant

Cupric sulfate

Pubchem

E519, blue vitriol, bluestone, vitriol of copper

Used to create Bordeaux mixture, suspension of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide, to inhibit fungal growth on grape vines, melons and berries

Synthetic

Curcumin

Pubchem

E100

Yellow-orange coloring in food, turmeric flavored beverages

Curcuma longa plant

Curry Powder

Pubchem

Garam masala

Spice blend originating from the Indian subcontinent usually containing coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek, chili, ginger, garlic, fennel, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, curry leaf, black pepper and so on

Several herbs and spices

Curry leaf

Pubchem

Sweet neem, karuveppilai, curry vepillai, kari bevu

Fresh leaves used as seasoning in South Asian and Cambodian cuisines, scented soups and flavorful stews

Leaf of murraya koenigii tree

Cyanocobalamin

Pubchem

Vitamin B12

Manufactured red crystalline powdered form of vitamin B12 that is converted to B12 inside the body

Produced by bacterial fermentation

Cyclamates

Pubchem

E952(iv), Sodium or calcium salts of cyclamic acid(E952)

30-50 times sweeter than table sugar, artificial sweetener

Banned in USA and South Korea. Used in European Union and 130 countries

Synthetic

Cymbopogon

Lemongrass, silky heads, cochin grass, oily heads, barbed wire grass

Flavoring agent in some ethnic dishes

Cymbopogon citratus plant

Share this
Older Post Newer Post