Food Science

Guide to Food Additives - T

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Guide to Food Additives - T

Name Other Names Purpose Source

Talc

E553b, E553(iii)

Buffing agent to polish white rice. Improves the flowability of powders. Anti-caking agent in table salt.

Synthesized by metamorphism of magnesian minerals

Tamarind

Edible fruit pulp added unripe to dishes for its sour flavor and pickling. Ripe fruit used to flavor curries, chutneys, drinks, sauces, ethnic foods, savory foods, stews, drinks, and vinegar replacement

Leguminous tree with edible fruit native to tropical Africa. Naturalized to South & Southeast Asia, Caribbean, and USA.

Tanacetum balsamita

Costmary, alecost, balsam herb, bible leaf, mint geranium

Aromatic leaves can be used in flavoring soups and alcoholic drinks, used in salads, flavoring cakes, and brewing herbal teas.

Native to the Mediterranean. Now grown in southwest Asia.

Tandoori masala

The spice mix used in South Asian cuisine to flavor meats and cheeses.

Various spices including garam masala, garlic, ginger, onion, and cayenne pepper.

Tannins

Tannoids

Tannic acid used to clarify alcoholic drinks. Aromatic and flavoring agent in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

Found in various plant foods including berries, nuts, herbs, spices, legumes, chocolate, wines, fruit juices, and beer

Tansy

Common tansy, bitter buttons, cow bitter, golden buttons

Rarely used as a flavoring for puddings, biscuits, and omelettes. Flavoring alcoholic drinks. Substitute for sage.

Plant native to Eurasia

Tara gum

E417

Similar to locust and guar gum, used as a thickening and stabilizing agent. Stable at high temperatures(293F/145C)

Extracted from grinding the seeds of the plant

Tarragon

Estragon

Herb used in chicken, fish, egg dishes, sauces, tarragon vinegar, the flavor in soft drinks, soups, pickles, and nut roll sweet cakes. Part of several global cuisines.

Plant cultivated and grown wild in Eurasia & North America

Tartrazine

E102, FD&C Yellow 5

A water-soluble lemon yellow dye used in desserts, confectionery, beverages, soft drinks, ice-creams, hard candy, instant mixes, baked goods, snacks, chewing gum, popcorn, jams, jelly, sauces,

Synthetic azo dye. Manufactured from benzene.

Tea seed oil

Camellia oil, Tea oil (Not to be confused with inedible Tea tree oil)

Cooking oil with high smoke point 486F(252C) prominently used in China

Obtained from the seeds of the plant Camellia oleifera

Tert-butylhydroquinone

E319, TBHQ

Food preservative for vegetable oils and animal fats. Used in frozen fish and fish products to improve shelf life.

A synthetic compound derived from hydroquinone(a further derivative of benzene)

Thaumatin

E957, Talin, Katemfe

Low-calorie sweetener and flavor modifier used in chewing gums. Pure protein 100,000 times sweeter than table sugar(sucrose). Persistent taste.

Produced from a West African shrub Thaumatococcus dianellii

Theine

Caffeine, Theine, Methyltheobromine, Guaranine

Stimulant, Cognitive & physical performance booster

Extracted from coffee beans from coffee fruit

Thiabendazole

E233, Mintezol, Tresaderm

Applied to fruits(eg. bananas, oranges) and vegetables to control mold, blight and fungal growth alongside waxes

Banned in EU, Australia and New Zealand

Synthetic

Thiamine

Thiamin, vitamin B1, aneurine

Used to fortify foods, especially flours(eg. white) devoid of the vitamin due to processing. Essential vitamin.

Found in grains, legumes, pork, fruits, and yeast

Thiodipropionic acid

E388, thydracrylic acid

Anti-oxidant that protects products such as fats and oils from deterioration

Synthetic compound

Thyme

Fresh and dried thyme used in several cuisines and recipes. Fresh is usually more flavorful.

Grown in hot and sunny locations across the globe

Tin salt

E512, tin dichloride, stannous chloride

Added to canned and bottled food as a color retaining and antioxidant agent

Synthesized by using hydrogen chloride gas and tin metal

Titanium dioxide

E171, Titanium(IV) oxide, titania, titanium white

Food coloring for coating surfaces, a whitening agent in toothpaste

Banned in France in foods

Extracted from ilmenite, rutile and anatase mineral ores

Tocopherol

E306, E307: α-tocopherol, E308: - γ-tocopherol, E309: δ-tocopherol

An anti-oxidant and essential vitamin, prevent rancidity and fortifies food, imparts a strong flavor

Extracted from vegetable oils

Tragacanth

E413, Shiraz gum, gum elect, gum dragon

Thickener, stabilizer, and emulsifier. Used to make pastes to create flowers and decorations for cakes by drying brittle and absorbing coloring.

Obtained from the dried sap when drained from the root of the plant

Triacetin

E1518, glycerol triacetate

A Solvent in flavoring compounds

Synthetic compound

Triammonium citrate

E380

Food emulsifier and buffering agent. Used in confectionery and cheese spreads.

Synthetic compound. Both an ammonium and citrate salt.

Triethyl citrate

E1505, Ethyl citrate

A stabilizing agent especially as whipping aid for egg whites. Emulsifier.

Synthesized using citric acid

Trimethylxanthine

Caffeine, Theine, Methyltheobromine, Guaranine

Stimulant, Cognitive & physical performance booster

Extracted from coffee beans from coffee fruit

Tripolyphosphate

E451, sodium triphosphate

Preservative for seafood, meats, and poultry, increases sale weight off of seafood by retaining moisture. Emulsifier.

Synthesized by heating disodium phosphate and monosodium phosphate

Trisodium phosphate

E339(iii), sodium phosphate

Sub-group of sodium phosphates used as an acidity regulator, metal binding agent, anti-clumping agent, and acid stabilizer.

Synthesized by neutralizing phosphoric acid using sodium hydroxide

Turmeric

A key ingredient to several Asian dishes. Adds earthy aroma and bitter, pungent flavor to savory and some sweet dishes. Used to create drinks, cakes, spice mixes, pickling, rice dishes, curries, and soups.

Plant native to Asia

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